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Aztec Codices: What They Tell us About Daily Life

By Lori Boornazian Diel
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : ABC-CLIO
  • Isbn : 1440851816
  • Pages : 381
  • Category : History
  • Reads : 760
  • File Pdf: aztec-codices.pdf

Book Summary:

From the migration of the Aztecs to the rise of the empire and its eventual demise, this book covers Aztec history in full, analyzing conceptions of time, religion, and more through codices to offer an inside look at daily life. This book focuses on two main areas: Aztec history and Aztec culture. Early chapters deal with Aztec history—the first providing a visual record of the story of the Aztec migration and search for their destined homeland of Tenochtitlan, and the second exploring how the Aztecs built their empire. Later chapters explain life in the Aztec world, focusing on Aztec conceptions of time and religion, the Aztec economy, the life cycle, and daily life. The book ends with an account of the fall of the empire, as illustrated by Aztec artists. With sections concerning a wide variety of topics—from the Aztec pantheon to war, agriculture, childhood, marriage, diet, justice, the arts, and sports, among many others—readers will gain an expansive understanding of life in the Aztec world. Provides an overview of life in the Aztec world and takes as its starting point the books created by Aztec peoples themselves Explores different topics related to Aztec history, culture, and daily life by first studying and providing a reading of a page from a codex Elucidates daily aspects of Aztec life such as diet, religion, calendars, economic systems, clothing and adornment, and more Allows students to gain both an understanding of the Aztec pictorial system of writing and of how the Aztecs lived their lives

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  • File Pdf: daily-life-of-the-aztecs-2nd-edition.pdf

Book Summary:

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Book Summary:

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  • File Pdf: the-death-of-aztec-tenochtitlan-the-life-of-mexico-city.pdf

Book Summary:

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  • File Pdf: handbook-for-history-teachers.pdf

Book Summary:

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  • File Pdf: xipe-teohua-minister-of-uitzilopochtli-god.pdf

Book Summary:

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  • File Pdf: lord-eight-wind-of-suchixtlan-and-the-heroes-of-ancient-oaxaca.pdf

Book Summary:

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  • File Pdf: the-search-for-the-codex-cardona.pdf

Book Summary:

In The Search for the Codex Cardona, Arnold J. Bauer tells the story of his experiences on the trail of a cultural treasure, a Mexican “painted book” that first came into public view at Sotheby’s auction house in London in 1982, nearly four hundred years after it was presumably made by Mexican artists and scribes. On folios of amate paper, the Codex includes two oversized maps and 300 painted illustrations accompanied by text in sixteenth-century paleography. The Codex relates the trajectory of the Nahua people to the founding of the capital of Tenochtitlán and then focuses on the consequences of the Spanish conquest up to the 1550s. If authentic, the Codex Cardona is an invaluable record of early Mexico. Yet there is no clear evidence of its origin, what happened to it after 1560, or even where it is today, after its last known appearance at Christie’s auction house in New York in 1998. Bauer first saw the Codex Cardona in 1985 in the Crocker Nuclear Laboratory at the University of California, Davis, where scholars from Stanford and the University of California were attempting to establish its authenticity. Allowed to gently lift a few pages of this ancient treasure, Bauer was hooked. By 1986, the Codex had again disappeared from public view. Bauer’s curiosity about the Codex and its whereabouts led him down many forking paths—from California to Seville and Mexico City, to the Firestone Library in Princeton, to the Getty Museum in Los Angeles and Christie’s in New York—and it brought him in contact with an international cast of curators, agents, charlatans, and erudite book dealers. The Search for the Codex Cardona is a mystery that touches on issues of cultural patrimony, the workings of the rare books and manuscripts trade, the uncertainty of archives and evidence, and the ephemerality of the past and its remains.

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  • File Pdf: death-in-american-texts-and-performances.pdf

Book Summary:

How do twentieth and twenty-first century artists bring forth the powerful reality of death when it exists in memory and lived experience as something that happens only to others? Death in American Texts and Performances takes up this question to explore the modern and postmodern aesthetics of death. Working between and across genres, the contributors examine literary texts and performance media, including Robert Lowell's For the Union Dead, Luis Valdez' Dark Root of a Scream, Amiri Baraka's Dutchman, Thornton Wilder's Our Town, John Edgar Wideman's The Cattle Killing, Toni Morrison's Sula and Song of Solomon, Don DeLillo's White Noise and Falling Man, and HBO's Six Feet Under. As the contributors struggle to convey the artist's crisis of representation, they often locate the dilemma in the gap between artifice and nature, where loss is performed and where re-membering is sometimes literally reenacted through the bodily gesture. While artists confront the impossibility of total recovery or transformation, so must the contributors explore the gulf between real corpses and their literary or performative reconstructions. Ultimately, the volume shows both artist and critic grappling with the dilemma of showing how the aesthetics of death as absence is made meaningful in and by language.

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  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : University of Texas Press
  • Isbn : 0292782284
  • Pages : 186
  • Category : Social Science
  • Reads : 353
  • File Pdf: the-tira-de-tepechpan.pdf

Book Summary:

Created in Tepechpan, a relatively minor Aztec city in Central Mexico, the Tira de Tepechpan records important events in the city's history from 1298 through 1596. Most of the history is presented pictographically. A line of indigenous year signs runs the length of the Tira, with images above the line depicting events in Tepechpan and images below the line recording events at Tenochtitlan, capital of the Aztec empire and later the seat of Spanish rule. Written annotations amplify some of the images. In this volume, which includes color plates of the entire Tira, Lori Boornazian Diel investigates the motives behind the creation and modification of the Tira in the second half of the sixteenth century. She identifies the Tira's different contributors and reconciles their various histories by asking why these painters and annotators, working at different times, recorded the events that they did. Comparing the Tira to other painted histories from Central Mexico, Diel demonstrates that the main goal of the Tira was to establish the antiquity, autonomy, and prestige of Tepechpan among the Central Mexican city-states that vied for power and status in the preconquest and colonial worlds. Offering the unique point of view of a minor city with grand ambitions, this study of the Tira reveals imperial strategy from the grassroots up, showing how a subject city negotiated its position under Aztec and Spanish control.

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  • Pages : 225
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  • File Pdf: bonds-of-blood.pdf

Book Summary:

The history of the Aztecs has been haunted by the spectre of human sacrifice. Reinvesting the Aztecs with a humanity frequently denied to them, and exploring their spectacular religious violence as a comprehensible element of life, this book integrates a fresh interpretation of gender with an innovative study of the everyday life of the Aztecs.

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Book Summary:

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By Anthony Aveni
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  • File Pdf: in-the-shadow-of-the-moon.pdf

Book Summary:

From an award-winning author, astronomer, and anthropologist, an exploration of the scientific and cultural significance of the mesmerizing cosmic display. Since the first humans looked up and saw the sun swallowed by darkness, our species has been captivated by solar eclipses. Astronomer and anthropologist Anthony Aveni explains the history and culture surrounding solar eclipses, from prehistoric Stonehenge to Babylonian creation myths, to a confirmation of Einstein’s theory of general relativity, to a spectacle that left New York City in the moon’s shadow, to future eclipses that will capture human imaginations. In one accessible and engaging read, Aveni explains the science behind the phenomenon, tracks eclipses across the ancient world, and examines the roles of solar eclipses in modern times to reveal the profound effects these cosmic events have had on human history. Colored by his own experiences—Aveni has witnessed eight total solar eclipses in his lifetime—his account of astronomy’s most storied phenomenon will enthrall anyone who has looked up at the sky with wonder. “Aveni’s authoritative but accessible text is the clearest statement of the way our perception of eclipses has changed over the centuries.” —Stuart Clark, New Scientist “Authoritative and engaging.” —Marcelo Gleiser, NPR’s 13.7 “A recommended way to share the spirit of the occasion.” —Laurence A. Marschall, Natural History magazine “Everything you need to enjoy a solar eclipse—and even predict one, just like the Babylonians did! Aveni’s entertaining explorations show the very different impacts eclipses have had on past and present cultures.” —David DeVorkin, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution

Stories in Red and Black

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  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : University of Texas Press
  • Isbn : 0292783124
  • Pages : 312
  • Category : Social Science
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  • File Pdf: stories-in-red-and-black.pdf

Book Summary:

The Aztecs and Mixtecs of ancient Mexico recorded their histories pictorially in images painted on hide, paper, and cloth. The tradition of painting history continued even after the Spanish Conquest, as the Spaniards accepted the pictorial histories as valid records of the past. Five Pre-Columbian and some 150 early colonial painted histories survive today. This copiously illustrated book offers the first comprehensive analysis of the Mexican painted history as an intellectual, documentary, and pictorial genre. Elizabeth Hill Boone explores how the Mexican historians conceptualized and painted their past and introduces the major pictorial records: the Aztec annals and cartographic histories and the Mixtec screenfolds and lienzos. Boone focuses her analysis on the kinds of stories told in the histories and on how the manuscripts work pictorially to encode, organize, and preserve these narratives. This twofold investigation broadens our understanding of how preconquest Mexicans used pictographic history for political and social ends. It also demonstrates how graphic writing systems created a broadly understood visual "language" that communicated effectively across ethnic and linguistic boundaries.

The Aztecs, Maya, and their Predecessors

By Muriel Porter Weaver
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
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  • Pages : 596
  • Category : Social Science
  • Reads : 186
  • File Pdf: the-aztecs-maya-and-their-predecessors.pdf

Book Summary:

The Third Edition of this highly successful introduction to the archaeology of Mesoamerica includes full coverage of the Aztec and Maya areas in one volume. Beginning with the settling of the New World and continuing through the Spanish conquest of Mesoamerica in 1521, this completely updated textbook includes the deciphering of Maya hieroglyphs, the dynamic history of the Maya, the new royal tomb excavated at Copan, Honduras, important new discoveries at Rio Azul and Naj Tunich in Guatemala, and Caracol in Belize, ritual sacrifices on a massive scale revealed at Teotihuacan in central Mexico, and new material from Tula (Toltec capitol) and from the heart of Mexico City.

Dancing the New World

By Paul A. Scolieri
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : University of Texas Press
  • Isbn : 0292748914
  • Pages : 227
  • Category : Performing Arts
  • Reads : 318
  • File Pdf: dancing-the-new-world.pdf

Book Summary:

From Christopher Columbus to “first anthropologist” Friar Bernardino de Sahagún, fifteenth- and sixteenth-century explorers, conquistadors, clerics, scientists, and travelers wrote about the “Indian” dances they encountered throughout the New World. This was especially true of Spanish missionaries who intensively studied and documented native dances in an attempt to identify and eradicate the “idolatrous” behaviors of the Aztec, the largest indigenous empire in Mesoamerica at the time of its European discovery. Dancing the New World traces the transformation of the Aztec empire into a Spanish colony through written and visual representations of dance in colonial discourse—the vast constellation of chronicles, histories, letters, and travel books by Europeans in and about the New World. Scolieri analyzes how the chroniclers used the Indian dancing body to represent their own experiences of wonder and terror in the New World, as well as to justify, lament, and/or deny their role in its political, spiritual, and physical conquest. He also reveals that Spaniards and Aztecs shared an understanding that dance played an important role in the formation, maintenance, and representation of imperial power, and describes how Spaniards compelled Indians to perform dances that dramatized their own conquest, thereby transforming them into colonial subjects. Scolieri’s pathfinding analysis of the vast colonial “dance archive” conclusively demonstrates that dance played a crucial role in one of the defining moments in modern history—the European colonization of the Americas.

The Oxford Handbook of the Aztecs

By Deborah L. Nichols,Enrique Rodríguez-Alegría
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Oxford University Press
  • Isbn : 0199341974
  • Pages : 592
  • Category : Social Science
  • Reads : 597
  • File Pdf: the-oxford-handbook-of-the-aztecs.pdf

Book Summary:

The Oxford Handbook of the Aztecs, the first of its kind, provides a current overview of recent research on the Aztec empire, the best documented prehispanic society in the Americas. Chapters span from the establishment of Aztec city-states to the encounter with the Spanish empire and the Colonial period that shaped the modern world. Articles in the Handbook take up new research trends and methodologies and current debates. The Handbook articles are divided into seven parts. Part I, Archaeology of the Aztecs, introduces the Aztecs, as well as Aztec studies today, including the recent practice of archaeology, ethnohistory, museum studies, and conservation. The articles in Part II, Historical Change, provide a long-term view of the Aztecs starting with important predecessors, the development of Aztec city-states and imperialism, and ending with a discussion of the encounter of the Aztec and Spanish empires. Articles also discuss Aztec notions of history, writing, and time. Part III, Landscapes and Places, describes the Aztec world in terms of its geography, ecology, and demography at varying scales from households to cities. Part IV, Economic and Social Relations in the Aztec Empire, discusses the ethnic complexity of the Aztec world and social and economic relations that have been a major focus of archaeology. Articles in Part V, Aztec Provinces, Friends, and Foes, focuses on the Aztec's dynamic relations with distant provinces, and empires and groups that resisted conquest, and even allied with the Spanish to overthrow the Aztec king. This is followed by Part VI, Ritual, Belief, and Religion, which examines the different beliefs and rituals that formed Aztec religion and their worldview, as well as the material culture of religious practice. The final section of the volume, Aztecs after the Conquest, carries the Aztecs through the post-conquest period, an increasingly important area of archaeological work, and considers the place of the Aztecs in the modern world.

Organised Crime in Antiquity

By Keith Hopwood
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : ISD LLC
  • Isbn : 1910589357
  • Pages : 278
  • Category : History
  • Reads : 451
  • File Pdf: organised-crime-in-antiquity.pdf

Book Summary:

'What are states but large bandit bands, and what are bandit bands but small states?' So asked St Augustine, reflecting on the late Roman world. Here nine original studies, by established historians of Greece, Rome and other ancient civilisations, explore the activities and the images of ancient criminal groups, comparing them closely and provocatively with the Greek and Roman government which the criminals challenged.

Secret Cities of Old South America

By Harold T. Wilkins
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Cosimo, Inc.
  • Isbn : 1605203211
  • Pages : 488
  • Category : Travel
  • Reads : 393
  • File Pdf: secret-cities-of-old-south-america.pdf

Book Summary:

Monstrous beasts, lost worlds, vanished civilizations, Amazon warriors, even Atlantis and Noahs ark figure in this wondrous and rare book. Hard to find in print before now, this obscure 1952 work is an artifact itself, of the postwar fascination with all things mysterious, from flying saucers to ancient astronauts to the third eye. In this wildly entertainingand more than a little bit preposterousdocument, Wilkins takes us from mountain jungles to unexplored swamps on a search for the hidden secrets of old South America. Seekers after the arcane and fans of the paranormal will delight in this odd and extraordinary volume. British journalist and historian HAROLD T. WILKINS (18911960) is also the author of Mysteries of Ancient South America (1945) and Mysteries of Time and Space (1958).

The White Shaman Mural

By Carolyn E. Boyd,Kim Cox
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : University of Texas Press
  • Isbn : 1477311203
  • Pages : 219
  • Category : Social Science
  • Reads : 757
  • File Pdf: the-white-shaman-mural.pdf

Book Summary:

The prehistoric hunter-gatherers of the Lower Pecos Canyonlands of Texas and Coahuila, Mexico, created some of the most spectacularly complex, colorful, extensive, and enduring rock art of the ancient world. Perhaps the greatest of these masterpieces is the White Shaman mural, an intricate painting that spans some twenty-six feet in length and thirteen feet in height on the wall of a shallow cave overlooking the Pecos River. In The White Shaman Mural, Carolyn E. Boyd takes us on a journey of discovery as she builds a convincing case that the mural tells a story of the birth of the sun and the beginning of time—making it possibly the oldest pictorial creation narrative in North America. Unlike previous scholars who have viewed Pecos rock art as random and indecipherable, Boyd demonstrates that the White Shaman mural was intentionally composed as a visual narrative, using a graphic vocabulary of images to communicate multiple levels of meaning and function. Drawing on twenty-five years of archaeological research and analysis, as well as insights from ethnohistory and art history, Boyd identifies patterns in the imagery that equate, in stunning detail, to the mythologies of Uto-Aztecan-speaking peoples, including the ancient Aztec and the present-day Huichol. This paradigm-shifting identification of core Mesoamerican beliefs in the Pecos rock art reveals that a shared ideological universe was already firmly established among foragers living in the Lower Pecos region as long as four thousand years ago.

The Hispanic Labyrinth

By Xavier Rubert de Ventós
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Transaction Publishers
  • Isbn : 9781412837194
  • Pages : 195
  • Category : History
  • Reads : 136
  • File Pdf: the-hispanic-la.pdf

Book Summary:

In its original Spanish language version, this tour de force was awarded the famed Espejo de Espana prize. Rubert deVentos examines the ambiguous yet highly charged relationships between Spain and the American nations of the Western hemisphere. Writing with the grace and charm that characterizes the best of the pensador tradition, the author has produced a fundamental treatise on social development. With his deep appreciation for the indigenous populations of South and Central America, Rubert deVentos offers a comparative perspective on the two major forms of colonization in the Americas--that of Spain and of the United States, leading to the provocative conclusion that each should have learned from the traditional rather than the modern lives of the other. He emphasizes with great precision distinctions in relative stages of industrialization in the West, differences between Catholic and Protestant faiths, the variety of legal codes imposed on Latin America, and above all the fine but critical differences between civilization and evangelization. Rubert deVentos's effort is exemplary for its immersion into the actual patterns of culture found in the encounter of civilizations. He engages in no harshness, no condemnation, no trivial pursuit of post-mortem name-calling. Rather he has a keen sense of the historical, the theological, and the inevitable. Written for the general reader and specialist in area studies alike, providing a deep sense of anthropology as well as history, The Hispanic Labyrinth has an ambitious aim: to give all concerned in this relationship a sense of common cause in building democracy in the process of global interaction. Xavier Rubert deVentos holds the chair in Esthetics at the University of Barcelona. He is a Santayana Fellow at Harvard University and a founding member of the New York Institute for the Humanities. He has held visiting professorships at the University of Cincinnati, and the University of California at Berkeley. He is the author of works in Spanish and Catalan, including On Modernity; The Theory of Sensibility and other books on philosophical themes. He is also a deputy to the European Parliament. The Hispanic Labyrinth is translated from Spanish by Mary Ann Newman, teacher of Spanish-American literature in New York City.

Wild/lives

By Terrie Waddell
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Routledge
  • Isbn : 1317724038
  • Pages : 216
  • Category : Psychology
  • Reads : 305
  • File Pdf: wild-lives.pdf

Book Summary:

Wild/lives draws on myth, popular culture and analytical psychology to trace the machinations of 'trickster' in contemporary film and television. This archetypal energy traditionally gravitates toward liminal spaces – physical locations and shifting states of mind. By focusing on productions set in remote or isolated spaces, Terrie Waddell explores how key trickster-infused sites of transition reflect the psychological fragility of their willing and unwilling occupants. In differing ways, the selected texts – Deadwood, Grizzly Man, Lost, Solaris, The Biggest Loser, Amores Perros and Repulsion – all play with inner and outer marginality. As this study demonstrates, the dramatic potential of transition is not always geared toward resolution. Prolonging the anxiety of change is an increasingly popular option. Trickster moves within this wildness and instability to agitate a form of dialogue between conscious and unconscious processes. Waddell's imaginative interpretation of screen material and her original positioning of trickster will inspire students of media, cinema, gender and Jungian studies, as well as academics with an interest in the application of Post-Jungian ideas to screen culture.

A Short History of Disease

By Sean Martin
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Oldcastle Books
  • Isbn : 1843444208
  • Pages : 160
  • Category : History
  • Reads : 132
  • File Pdf: a-short-history-of-disease.pdf

Book Summary:

Throughout history, disease has plagued human civilisations, claiming more lives than natural disasters and warfare combined. Now, in 2015, the world's response to the outbreak of Ebola in West Africa, which has caused widespread devastation since it was first reported in March 2014, is at the forefront of health discussions. A Short History of Disease chronicles the historical and geographical evolution of infectious and non-infectious diseases, offering an accessible guide to the ailments and the medical methods used to combat them. Analysing case studies including the Black Death, Spanish Flu, syphilis, cancer, malaria and Ebola, Martin maps the development of trends and the latest research on disease into a concise and enlightening timeline.

The Seventh Sun

By Lani Forbes
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Blackstone Publishing
  • Isbn : 1982546638
  • Pages : 336
  • Category : Young Adult Fiction
  • Reads : 502
  • File Pdf: the-seventh-sun.pdf

Book Summary:

Thrust into leadership upon the death of his emperor father, young Prince Ahkin feels completely unready for his new position. Though his royal blood controls the power of the sun, he’s now responsible for the lives of all the Chicome people. And despite all Ahkin’s efforts, the sun is fading—and the end of the world may be at hand. For Mayana, the only daughter of the Chicome family whose blood controls the power of water, the old emperor’s death may mean that she is next. Prince Ahkin must be married before he can ascend the throne, and Mayana is one of six noble daughters presented to him as a possible wife. Those who are not chosen will be sacrificed to the gods. Only one girl can become Ahkin’s bride. Mayana and Ahkin feel an immediate connection, but the gods themselves may be against them. Both recognize that the ancient rites of blood that keep the gods appeased may be harming the Chicome more than they help. As a bloodred comet and the fading sun bring a growing sense of dread, only two young people may hope to change their world. Rich in imagination and romance, and based on the legends and history of the Aztec and Maya people, The Seventh Sun brings to vivid life a world on the edge of apocalyptic disaster.

Komatke Gold

By Benjamin Vance
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Benjamin Vance
  • Isbn : 0985916842
  • Pages : 147
  • Category : Fiction
  • Reads : 114
  • File Pdf: komatke-gold.pdf

Book Summary:

An adventure novel dealing with brutal murders, smuggling, archeological discovery, and a life's validation. An unsuspecting retired military officer attempts to retrace steps of early manhood by revisiting the venue of his first and only love. He quickly finds himself involved in a series of baffling situations which tax his situational awareness, personal relationships, combat skills, and lead to a reassessment of goals and friendships. He finds his first love and attempts to rebuild the relationship in spite of the emotional and physical barriers erected to hinder his progress. With the help of wise and astute Native Americans he overcomes the setbacks and begins to revive his true character and ability to love and nurture. Contemporary themes underscore this Southwestern adventure, which embraces the paramount values of family, close relationships and enduring love.

The Aztecs

By Michael E. Smith
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
  • Isbn : 1118257197
  • Pages : 416
  • Category : History
  • Reads : 892
  • File Pdf: the-aztecs.pdf

Book Summary:

The Aztecs brings to life one of the best-known indigenouscivilizations of the Americas in a vivid, comprehensive account ofthe ancient Aztecs. A thorough examination of Aztec origins and civilizationincluding religion, science, and thought Incorporates the latest archaeological excavations and researchinto explanations of the Spanish conquest and the continuity ofAztec culture in Central Mexico Expanded coverage includes key topics such as writing, music,royal tombs, and Aztec predictions of the end of the world

The Aztecs

By Frances F. Berdan
  • Format : Pdf, ePub, Mobi, Kindle
  • Publisher : Reaktion Books
  • Isbn : 1789143616
  • Pages : 208
  • Category : Social Science
  • Reads : 834
  • File Pdf: the-aztecs.pdf

Book Summary:

In this rich and surprising book, Frances F. Berdan shines fresh light on the enigmatic ancient Aztecs. She casts her net wide, covering topics as diverse as ethnicity, empire-building, palace life, etiquette, origin myths, and human sacrifice. While the Aztecs are often described as “stone age,” their achievements were remarkable. They constructed lofty temples and produced fine arts in precious stones, gold, and shimmering feathers. They crafted beautiful poetry and studied the sciences. They had schools and libraries, entrepreneurs and money, and a bewildering array of deities and dramatic ceremonies. Based on the latest research and lavishly illustrated, this book reveals the Aztecs to have created a civilization of sophistication and finesse.